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Here is the information focusing on miRNAs as biomarkers in the pediatric population with an emphasis on cardiovascular diseases. MicroRNAs (miRNAs, miRs) are abundant small noncoding RNAs that function post-transcriptionally by negatively regulating the expression of messenger RNAs (mRNAs) via transcript degradation or translational repression. miRNAs modulate gene expression by targeting reverse complementary 6–8 nucleotide […]

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While the treatment of children with heart failure includes the use of ACE inhibitors, aldosterone antagonist, and betablockers, studies have failed to demonstrate the robust morbidity and mortality benefit that was seen in adults. There have been some small studies in children that support the use of beta blockers and ACE inhibitors in pediatric patients with […]

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Over the last 35 years, there has been an increased emphasis on viewing heart failure as a progressive process, and with this viewpoint has come a shift towards a neurohormonal model of heart failure. In this model, heart failure can be understood as an evolving disorder that takes place after an index event. That initial […]

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Cardiac arrhythmias are a major cause of clinical deterioration and demise in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). In line with this, current International guide-lines recommend prophylactic intervention with implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICD) in patients with heart failure and left ventricular ejection fraction <35%. Whilst data from longitudinal studies show a 44% decline in sudden cardiac death […]

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State-of-the art 3D printing relies on the optimization of imaging. Radiologists who are involved in 3D-printing research can help accomplish this. They can also perform the post-processing required for 3D printing, accurately and efficiently. Centralization of 3D printing, data collection, and quality control in the radiology department provides many research opportunities related to 3D printing. […]

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Why are 3D models of patient-specific anatomy so useful for operative planning? Perhaps the most obvious answer is that the models provide surgeons with an opportunity to understand the complex anatomy unique to each case in the dimension they will be operating in. These 3D printed anatomic models based on patient-specific anatomy can be used […]

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Recent rapid growth of 3D printing in medicine has been staggering. A search of Pubmed.gov using the term “3D printing” yielded only six publications in the year 2000, 61 publications in 2010, and more than 1100 publications in 2016. To encourage continued growth of this technology, the National Additive Manufacturing Innovation Institute was launched in […]

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Simulation in medical education started with the widespread use of standardized patients and animal laboratories. Pigs are widely used for learning vascular and non vascular interventional procedures guided by fluoroscopy, endoscopy, or cross-sectional imaging. Some of the earliest technologies used in Interventional Radiology simulation training were computer-based training modules such as Radiology Society of North […]

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Clinical skills training in medical education is on the cusp of change. Increased pressure on the healthcare system to be safer has caused the current Master- Apprentice model of training to fall under scrutiny. The current model has many shortcomings pertaining to patient safety as training is done with real patients; time constraints on training […]

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Visualizing and analyzing the morphological structure of carotid bifurcations are important for understanding the etiology of carotid atherosclerosis, which is a major cause of stroke and transient ischemic attack. For delineation of vasculatures in the carotid artery, ultrasound examinations have been widely employed because of the non-invasive procedure without ionizing radiation. However, conventional 2D ultrasound […]

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